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Bagaimana Kertas Dibuat?

Kertas adalah benda berdimensi tipis yang terbuat dari serat pohon dan biasa digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari baik itu untuk menulis, menggambar, atau juga mencetak.

Selain itu, dalam dunia perekonomian kertas dianggap sangatlah penting karena digunakan sebagai penyimpan nilai berupa uang dan dalam dunia perindustrian kertas ini bisa digunakan juga untuk kemasan produk.

Ada juga beberapa jenis kertas yaitu kertas HVS untuk kepentingan fotokopi dan kertas untuk printer, kertas manila/BC/BW yang cocok digunakan untuk menggambar dengan pensil misalnya untuk membuat sketsa wajah, art paper untuk mencetak foto, dan masih banyak lagi.

Setelah sekian lama menggunakan benda ini, sudah tahukah Anda bagaimana proses pembuatannya?

Berikut ini adalah penjelasan mengenai bagaimana proses pembuatan kertas:

  1. Debarking dan Chipping

Hal pertama yang dilakukan untuk membuat kertas adalah membuat bubur kayu terlebih dahulu.

Pertama-tama kulit harus dilepaskan dari batang pohon karena tidak bisa digunakan dalam proses pembuatan kertas.

Sebelum masuk ke proses pembuatan bubur kayu secara kimiawi, batang pohon yang sudah dikuliti tersebut harus dipotong kecil-kecil.

  1. Chemical dan Mechanical Pulping (Pengupasan kimia dan mekanik)

Pada proses ini zat kimia didegrasi menjadi lignin dan menghasikan bubur kertas.

Bubur kertas ini bentuknya mirip dengan kertas tapi lebih tebal dan teksturnya masih kasar.

  1. Cleaning (Membersihkan)

Setelah dihancurkan, disaring, dan kemudian dikeringkan, bubur kertas baru bisa digunakan untuk membuat produk percetakan seperti kertas koran dan kertas majalah.

  1. Head Box (Kotak kepala)

Setelah itu bubur kertas dipompa ke dalam mesin pembuatan kertas besar yang besarnya bisa sampai empat kali lipat panjang kolam renang olimpiade dan tingginya bisa sampai setinggi bangunan tiga lantai.

Pada proses ini massa bubur kertas akan disemprotkan melalui celah horizontal yang bergerak di atas kawat agar kadar airnya menghilang.

  1. Wire Section (Bagian kawat)

Pada proses yang juga disebut sebagai pembentukan lembaran ini, fiber mulai disebar dan dibentuk menjadi lembaran tipis.

  1. Press Section (Tekan bagian)

Gelaran tipis siap dimasukkan ke tempat penekanan dengan kecepatan hampir 90 km per jam.

Penekanan ini bisa memeras kadar air sebanyak 50% dan air yang dihasilkan bisa digunakan kembali.

  1. Drying (Pengeringan)

Kemudian lembaran-lembaran ini dikeringkan dengan suhu lebih dari 100 derajat Celsius.

  1. Converting (Konversi)

Setelah itu lapisan kimia diletakkan pada permukaan kertas yang sudah dikeringkan dan untuk memperbaiki kertas sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam gulungan besar berukuran sekitar 8,5 meter.

Namun, sebagian besar alat cetak yang biasa digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari tidak bisa berjalan jika menggunakan ukuran kertas tersebut sehingga harus dipotong menjadi kecil-kecil.

  1. Finishing dan Packaging (Finishing dan pengemasan)

Lembaran yang sudah dipotong kecil-kecil harus dikemas agar tidak rusak saat proses pengiriman ke seluruh penjuru dunia.

 

Dibalik tingginya jumlah konsumsi kertas yang membuat para produsen benda tipis ini terus memproduksi secara berkelanjutan pasti ada sisi positif dan negatifnya.

Positifnya bisa meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi di negara produsen, sedangkan negatifnya bisa dilihat dari sisi lingkungan.

Semakin banyak kertas diproduksi semakin banyak juga kayu yang harus ditebang.

Jika pepohonan hutan sudah habis maka banyak permasalahan yang akan terjadi seperti tanah longsor, banjir, bahkan global warming.

Maka dari itu, untuk meminimalisir terjadinya hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan kita sebagai konsumen harus bijak dalam menggunakan kertas.

Mendaur ulang kertas adalah salah satu cara sederhana untuk menghemat penggunaan kertas.

Semakin bijak dalam penggunaan kertas maka kita sudah ikut andil dalam menyelamatkan dunia, lingkungan, dan kehidupan.

Demikian artikel mengenai bagaimana proses pembuatan kertas semoga membantu dan bermanfaat untuk kita semua.

Sumber:

http://paperone.co.id/tentang-kami/bagaimana-kertas-dibuat

https://www.qureta.com/post/kertas-hutan-dan-kelangsungan-hidup

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    Обустройство скважины с кессоном из бетонных колец
    Использование кессона из бетонных колец при обустройстве скважины – правильный выбор в пользу долгой службы Вашей скважины – порядка 70-100 лет. Бетонная конструкция самая прочная и устойчивая из всех конструкций, использующихся при защите и обустройстве скважин. Такие кессоны под своей тяжестью не сдвинуться даже под большим напором воды. Отменная защита Вашей скважине гарантирована. Монтаж кессона из бетонных колец и завершение обустройства скважины:
    Вокруг обсадной трубы экскаватор выкапывает котлован шириной около 2 м. Данные для глубины берутся из паспорта на скважину. Дно котлована выравнивают.С помощью крана на дно котлована опускают бетонную плиту с отверстием для обсадной трубы – дно будущего кессона. Использование донной плиты обязательно ввиду риска усадки и вымывания грунта под кессоном.Далее с помощью крана на бетонной плите размещают от 2 до 4 бетонных колец. Стандартная высота кольца составляет 90 см.Далее рабочий с помощью лестницы спускается вниз, заделывает стыки бетонных колец цементным раствором.Отверстие вокруг обсадной трубы засыпается плотно мелким щебнем либо цементно-песчаной смесью.В первом бетонном кольце проделывают отверстия для вывода труб. Выкапывают траншею от кессона в дом, для прокладки водопровода.Прокладывают водопровод. Выводят систему полива участка.Устанавливают в кессоне гидроаккумулятор, фильтр, системы автоматики.Поверх бетонных колец опускают верхнюю плиту. Отверстие для обслуживания обустроенной скважины закрывается полимерной крышкой люка.Стыки заделывают цементным раствором.Щели вокруг кессона засыпаются выкопанным ранее песком.Монтаж кессона и обустройство скважины закончено.